

PHYS3031
Advanced Optics and Nuclear Physics
Students should only enrol into PHYS3050 if they have already completed PHYS3060.
All other students should enrol into PHYS3031 Advanced Optics and Nuclear Physics in 2013.
Nuclear Physics
See
also Lecture Notes
Course Outline 2011
Brief Syllabus:
Deuteron and structure of nuclear forces; Nucleonnucleon
scattering; Shell model, SaxonWoods and 3D oscillator potentials;
Pairing in nuclei; Isotopes, stability of nuclei; Excited
nuclear states and electromagnetic transitions; decay
and weak interaction; Parity nonconservation in nuclei;
Classification of elementary particles, leptons, hadrons,
and intermediate bosons; Quarks, gluons, color and confinement;
Light mesons and baryon, strangeness; Heavy quarks and heavy
mesons; Charm, beauty and truth.
Assumed
Knowledge
PHYS3010 or PHYS3210 at a credit average or above.
Course
Goals
The Nuclear Physics Course consists of two parts
a)Physics of nuclei.
b)Introduction to elementary particle physics
The first part includes the following topics:

Deuteron, the simplest composite nucleus. The emphasis
is placed on what we can learn about the strong nuclear
interaction from properties of the deuteron and from proton
and neutron scattering experiments.

Nuclear Shell Model. The model allows us to understand
and to predict various nuclear properties such as "magic
nuclei'', nuclear magnetic moments, etc.

Single particle and collective nuclear excitations and
electromagnetic transitions.
 decay
which is a manifestation of the weak interaction. The decay
is very important for understanding the stability of isotopes.

Parity nonconservation. This effect is due to the weak
interaction, and it makes the weak interaction qualitatively
different from the strong one.

Elements of the theory of nuclear reactions, the emphasis
is on neutron reactions.
The second part includes the following topics:

Classification of elementary particles, leptons, hadrons,
and intermediate bosons.

Electroweak and strong interactions, conservation of lepton
and baryon numbers.

Light quarks, mesons and baryons, strangeness.

Gluons, colour and confinement.

Heavy quarks and associated quantum numbers (charm,
beauty, and truth), heavy mesons.
Why is Nuclear physics important?
The amount of brainpower and money invested in nuclear physics
is probably greater than that invested in all other sciences
combined. This resulted in a huge body of knowledge and
in the development of extremely powerful methods and techniques.
These methods are now used in various fields like medicine
(Xrays, isotopes, radiation, proton therapy, positron tomography,..),
condensed matter studies and biology (neutron scattering,
synchrotron radiation), technology (power stations, separation
of isotopes), etc. The same is true for theoretical methods
developed for nuclear physics, for example the modern condensed
matter theory or quantum chemistry are to a very large extent
based on methods developed for nuclear physics.
Elementary
particle physics is at the forefront of fundamental studies
of matter. The concept of the elementary particle depends
on time. Once, people believed that atoms are elementary.
Now we know that they have structure, but we consider electrons,
quarks, neutrinos, etc as elementary objects. Perhaps they
also have some internal structure?
So, the concept of an elementary particle means that it
is the most fundamental level of matter understood at the
moment which is why this is at the forefront of fundamental
research. Elementary particle physics is closely related
to astrophysics, creation of Universe and the creation of
matter in Universe.
How to succeed  Strategies for Learning

Follow the lectures and make sure that you understand
all the examples presented in lectures. Do not rely on
the textbook only. On the one hand, there is too much
material in the textbook and without the lecture guidance
it is practically impossible to absorb the material. On
the other hand, there are important topics missing from
the book.

Do not hesitate to ask questions during lectures. Your
questions are the most helpful for you, they are also
helpful for other students, and they are helpful for the
lecturer because they provide feedback.

Solve all assignment problems. Assignments contribute
to your mark. Even more importantly,they contribute to
your preparation for examinations.

Do past exams.
Textbook:
K. S. Krane, Introductory Nuclear Physics, 1987.
Detailed
Syllabus
Topic

Chapter 
Comparison
of typical atomic and nuclear scales

1.4,
3.1 
Deuteron,
spherical squarewell approximation 
4.1 
Role
of Coulomb interaction in nuclei, deformation, fission

13.1 
Dependence
of strong interaction on spin 
4,
4.4 
Spin,
magnetic moment and parity of deuteron 
4.1 
Tensor
interaction and dwave admixture in deuteron 
4.1 
Isospin,
Generalized Fermi statistics 
11.3 
General
form of effective nucleonnucleon interaction 
4 


Dominance
of =0
scattering at low energy

4.2 
Scattering
cross section, scattering amplitude, scattering phases,
and scattering length 
4.2 
Scattering
on a potential with shallow level, virtual level 
4.2 


Shell
model, selfconsistent field, SaxonWoods and 3D oscillator
potentials

2.4 
Shells,
magic nuclei 
5.1 
Spinorbit
interaction 
5.1 
Pairing
of nucleons 
3.3 


Shell
model magnetic moments, Schmidt lines

5.1 
Isotopes,
stability of nuclei, decay,
decay,
fission
Neutron stars 
6 


Single
particle excitations in nuclei

5.1 
Electromagnetic
transitions, E1, M1 and E2 selection rules 
10.110.5 
Lifetimes

6.1,
6.2 
Collective
vibrations (quadrupole "phonons'') 
5.2 
Static
quadrupole deformation, rotational spectra 
5.2 


decay
and weak interaction, Fermi theory

9.1,
9.2 
Spectrum
of electrons,
Kurie plot, neutrino mass 
9.2,
9.3 
Selection
rules, Fermi and GamowTeller transitions,
forbidden decays 
9.3 
Electron
capture 
9 
Parity
nonconservation, C, P, and T symmmetries,
CPTtheorem 
9.9 


Nuclear
reactions, mechanisms of reactions

11 
Compound
nucleus, neutron capture 
11.10,
11.12 
Meson
"theory'' of nuclear interaction 
17.1 


Classification
of elementary particles, leptons, hadrons and intermediate
bosons

18 
Interactions
of leptons, reactions, conservation of lepton number,
neutrino mixing 
18 
Light
quarks, u,d,s; Baryons and mesons, strangeness 
18 
Isospin
vs strangeness diagrams for quarks 
18 


Quantum
numbers of
and
mesons,
decays of the mesons, gluons

18 
Strange
pseudoscalar mesons, quark masses 
18 
Approximate
SU(3) flavour symmetry and
ST_{3} diagrams for pseudoscalar and vector
mesons 
18 
ST_{3}
diagrams for spin 1/2 and spin 3/2 baryons,
^{},
^{++}
and ^{},
the problem with the Pauli exclusion principle 
18 


Colour,
gluons, Quantum Chromodynamics, difference between flavour
and colour

18 
Heavy
quarks, charm, beauty, and truth,
Mesons with hidden charm (beauty, truth)
Mesons with open charm (beauty, truth) 
18 
Further
Information
For
more information about PHYS3050 contact:
Advanced Optics
Lecturer:
This course develops
the foundations of modern optics from a physical basis.
The course covers three major themes: farfield diffraction,
nearfield diffraction and the theory of coherence. All
of these themes are treated from the perspective of fourier
theory which is also applicable to other areas of wave physics.
The course also includes a revision of geometric optics
with an emphasis on computerbased methods for ray tracing
and design of optical systems. Included in the material
are analyses of: fresnel lenses; phase contrast microscopy;
holography; optical fibres; telescopes; image enhancement;
and fourier filtering. The fundamental material covered
in the course has many practical applications including
modern optoelectronics, optical communications and image
processing.
Assessment:
 Final Exam 65%
 Assignments 20%
 Midsession Test 15%
Textbook:
 E. Hecht & A. Zajac,
"Optics" (AddisonWesley 1974).
Reference:
 R. Guenther, "Modern Optics"
(John Wiley July 1994).
Geometrical Optics 
55.2 


Ray tracing 
Issued sheets 


Fraunhofer Diffraction
and Interference 

Using Fourier Transform
Approach 



Optical transforms of
one and twodimensional 
11.1 to 11.2.3 
apertures, including
regular arrays. The phase 
11.3.2 to 11.3.3 
problem. Abbe's theory
of imaging. Spatial 
14.1 to 14.1.3 
filtering. Image processing. 
+ issued sheets 


Fresnel Diffraction 



Zones, vibration curves,
circular apertures, zone 
10.3.1 to 10.3.11 
plates, Fresnel integrals,
rectangular apertures, 

Cornu spiral, obstacles,
Babinet's Principle. 



Kirchhoff's Scalar Diffraction
Theory 
10.4+Appendix 2 


Optical Coherence 



Coherence length and
time, spectral distribution. 
Chapter 12 
Auto and crosscorrelation.
Mutual coherence, degree of coherence. Temporal
and spatial 
11.5.4 
coherence. Stellar interferometers
and star 

diameters. 

Further
Information
For more information
about PHYS3060 contact:


